Abstracts of Vol. 14, No 3 and 14(3)first_page.pdf      files, full text
CONTENTS - return

167 - 14(3)167.PDF file, full text

Metamaterial-based source and scattering enhancements: from microwave to optical frequencies

A brief review of metamaterial applications to source and scattering problems in the microwave and optical frequency regimes is given. Issues associated with modelling these systems are discussed. Electrically small radiating and scattering systems are emphasized. Single negative, double negative, and zero-index versions of these metamaterial-based systems are introduced that provide a means to manipulate their efficiency, bandwidth, and directivity characteristics.

Keywords: metamaterials, complex media, computational electromagnetics, electrically small antennas, lasers, scattering.

Page up

179 - 14(3)179.PDF file, full text

Modelling of isotropic double negative media for microwave applications

A composite medium consisting of two sublattices of dielectric spherical particles of high permittivity and different radii embedded in a dielectric matrix of smaller permittivity are considered. It has been shown that such a composite medium reveals properties of an isotropic double negative media (DNG) in a limited frequency range, when resonance oscillations of HIII mode in one kind of particles and EIII mode in another kind of particles are excited simultaneously. The EIII resonance and the HIII resonance give rise to the magnetic dipole momentum and the electric dipole momentum correspondingly. Averaging the magnetic momentum and the electric momentum over the cells belonging to the appropriate spherical particles gives the negative permittivity and permeability. The model of diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric sphere is presented and compared with the mixing rule based consideration. The results obtained are rather close. Distribution of the electromagnetic wave outside the sphere is calculated. Influence of the dispersion of the sphere size and the dielectric permittivity on the effective parameters of the DNG material is estimated.

Keywords: composite medium, double negative, metamaterial, spherical particle, mixing rule, diffraction, isotropic.

Page up

187 - 14(3)187.PDF file, full text

A review of size and geometrical factors influencing resonant frequencies in metamaterials

Although metamaterials and so-called left-handed media have originated from theoretical considerations, it is only by their practical fabrication and the measurement of their properties that they have gained credibility and can fulfil the potential of their predicted properties. In this review we consider some of the more generally applicable fabrication methods and changes in geometry as they have progressed, exhibiting resonant frequencies ranging from radio waves to the visible optical region.

Keywords: metamaterials, fabrication, lithography, geometry.

Page up

193 - 14(3)193.PDF file, full text

Identifying magnetic response of split-ring resonators at microwave frequencies

In this study we provide experimental methods to identify the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators (SRR) at the microwave frequency regime. Transmission measurements were performed on both single SRR unit cell and periodic arrays of SRRs. The magnetic response of the SRR structure was demonstrated by comparing the transmission spectra of SRRs with closed ring resonators (CRR). Effects of the changes in the effective dielectric constant of the SRR medium on the band-gaps of SRR are investigated experimentally. SRRs not only exhibit a magnetic resonance band gap but also a band gap due to the electric resonance. Finally, we present the effect of electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of bianisotropic SRRs by utilizing SRRs with different orientations, and incident electromagnetic wave polarizations.

Keywords: split ring resonator, negative permeability, left-handed materials, metamaterials.

Page up

201 - 14(3)201.PDF file, full text

Photonic band structure of oxidized macroporous silicon

We investigated theoretically the effect of surface silicon oxide layer on the photonic band structure of a macroporous silicon photonic crystal. Using the plain wave method we have shown that the bandgap in oxidized structure is shifted to the higher frequencies relative to non-oxidized case. We also demonstrate that comparatively wide absolute bandgap can be obtained for low air filling fractions by using thick SiO2 layer. As an example of possible application of such three-component systems, we have shown the concept of a selector of electromagnetic modes based on our calculations.

Keywords: macroporous silicon, surface oxide layer, bandgap shift.

Page up

205 - 14(3)205.PDF file, full text

Tb3Sc2Al3O12-TbScO3 eutectic self-organized microstructure for metamaterials and photonic crystals application

Eutectics are the materials with foreseen application in the field of photonic crystals and metamaterials. In this paper, the dependence on chemical composition of the microstructures of terbium-scandium-aluminium garnet and terbium-scandium perovskite (Tb3Sc2Al3O12-TbScO3) eutectics has been studied. The growth of the eutectic rods by the micro-pulling down method is presented, using compositions with several different volume fractions of the garnet and the perovskite phases, VTSAG:VTSP = 4, 3, 2, 1, 1/2. The phases have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometry. The relationship between the lattice constant of individual phases and the chemical composition is presented. The unidirectional growth of microrods has been also investigated by electron backscattering diffraction.

Keywords: eutectic, micro-pulling down method, oxide, TbScO3, Tb3Sc2Al3O12, microstructure.

Page up

213 - 14(3)213.PDF file, full text

Near field imaging in microwave regime using double layer split-ring resonator based metamaterial

A planar metamaterial structure consisting of two layers of split-ring resonator (SRR) arrays is demonstrated to form the image of a point source with subwavelength resolution. The source frequency is swept through the resonance gap of the metamaterial layers and the lateral field intensity distribution is recorded on the transmission side of the metamaterial. When the source is tuned to the resonance frequency of SRRs, the metamaterial acts as a high permeability medium and a distinct image with subwavelength resolution in the lateral direction is obtained. Increasing the distance between the individual SRR layers reduces the interlayer coupling, and the intensity and spatial resolution of the image decrease rapidly.

Keywords: metamaterial, subwavelength imaging, near field imaging.

Page up

217 - 14(3)217.PDF file, full text

Optical bistability of planar metal/dielectric nonlinear nanostructures

We study theoretically a nonlinear response of the planar metal/dielectric nanostructures constituted from periodical array of ultra thin silver layers and the layers of Kerr-like nonlinear dielectric. We predict hysteresis-type dependences of the components of the tensor of effective dielectric permittivity on the field intensity allowing the change in material transmission properties from transparent to opaque and back at extremely low intensities of the light. It makes possible to control the light by light in all-optical nanoscale devices and circuits.

Keywords: nonlinear metal/dielectric nanostructures, quasi-static resonance, tensor of effective dielectric permittivity, optical bistability.

Page up

225 - 14(3)225.PDF file, full text

Towards focusing using photonic crystal flat lens

We report on the numerical simulation and fabrication of a two-dimensional flat lens based on negative refraction in photonic crystals. The slab acting as a lens is made of an hole array (operating at the wavelength of 1.5 µm) etched in a InP/InGaAsP/InP semiconductor layer. We first study the key issues for the achievement of a negative refractive index taking advantage of folding of dispersion branches with main emphasis in dispersion properties rather than the opening of forbidden gaps. The diffraction and refraction regimes are analysed according to the comparison of the wave-vector with respect to the relevant dimensions of the hole array. In the second stage, we illustrate technological challenges in terms of e-beam lithography on a sub-micron scale and deep reactive ion etching for an indium phosphide based technology. 

Keywords: negative refraction, optical wavelengths, photonic crystals fabrication.

Page up

233 - 14(3)233.PDF file, full text

Optical guided dispersions and subwavelength transmissions in dispersive plasmonic circular holes
K.Y. KIM, Y.K. CHO, H.S. TAE and J.H. LEE

The light transmission through a dispersive plasmonic circular hole is numerically investigated with an emphasis on its subwavelength guidance. For a better understanding of the effect of the hole diameter on the guided dispersion characteristics, the guided modes, including both the surface plasmon polariton mode and the circular waveguide mode, are studied for several hole diameters, especially when the metal cladding has a plasmonic frequency dependency. A brief comparison is also made with the guided dispersion characteristics of a dispersive plasmonic gap [K.Y. Kim, et al., Opt. Express 14, 320-330 (2006)], which is a planar version of the present structure, and a circular waveguide with perfect electric conductor cladding. Finally, the modal behaviour of the first three TM-like principal modes with varied hole diameters is examined for the same operating mode.

Keywords: dispersion, dispersive plasmonic hole, subwavelength guidance, surface plasmon polariton, surface wave.

Page up

243 - 14(3)243.PDF file, full text

Energy transport in plasmon waveguides on chains of metal nanoplates

An interest in energy transport in 3D chains of metal nanoparticles is oriented towards future applications in nanoscale optical devices. We consider plasmonic waveguides composed of silver nanoplates arranged in several geometries to find the one with the lowest attenuation. We investigate light propagation of 500-nm wavelength along different chains of silver nanoplates of subwavelength length and width and wavelength-size height. Energy transmission of the waveguides is analysed in the range of 400-2000 nm. We find that chain of short parallel nanoplates guides energy better than two electromagnetically coupled continuous stripes and all other considered nonparallel structures. In a wavelength range of 500-600 nm, this 2-µm long 3D waveguide transmits 39% of incident energy in a channel of  l x l/2 cross section area.

Keywords: surface plasmons-polaritons, waveguides, nano-optical devices, plasmon resonance, evanescent waves.

Page up

253 - 14(3)253.PDF file, full text

Electromagnetic modelling of 3D periodic structure containing magnetized or polarized ellipsoids

Coupling matrix and coupling coefficient concepts are applied to the interaction of an incident plane wave with a regular array of small magnetized or polarized ellipsoids, placed in a homogeneous surrounding medium. In general case, the angle of incidence and polarization of the plane wave upon an array of ellipsoids can be arbitrary. In this model, it is assumed that all the ellipsoids are the same, and the direction of their magnetization is also the same. The direction of magnetization is arbitrary with respect to the direction of the propagation of the incident wave and to the boundary plane between the first medium, where the incident wave comes from, and the array material under study. Any magnetized or polarized ellipsoid is represented as a system of three orthogonal elementary magnetic radiators (EMR) and/or three orthogonal elementary electric radiators (EER). Mutual interactions of individual radiators in the array through the incident plane wave and corresponding scattered electromagnetic fields are taken into account. The electrodynamic characteristics - reflection from the surface of the semi-infinite array (in particular, containing uniaxial hexagonal ferrite resonators), transmission through the array, and absorption are analyzed.

Keywords: semi-infinite 3D array, ellipsoidal scatterers, elementary magnetic and electric radiators, hexagonal ferrite resonators, Floquet harmonics, coupling matrix, coupling coefficient, reflection, transmission, absorption.

Page up